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Scheda anonima su [Ab] attribuibile a Francesco Dell'Orso. Bibliography formatting software: an evaluation template.
May , 14th ed. January Analisi comparativa di EndNote e ProCite nella 1a ed.
Bibliography formatting software: Reference Manager version 9 for Windows. Reference Manager: un programma per gestire su personal computer database bibliografici, per ricercare con protocollo Z Papyrus: un vero software bibliografico per Macintosh.
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EndNote 4 per Windows: conferma e sicurezza nell'aggiornamento. Reference Manager: aggiornamento di un bibliography formatting software. Informatica documentaria. Library Master versione Windows 4.
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BookWhere 4 per Windows: un cliente per la ricerca tramite Z EndNote 7: l'ultima versione per Windows e Macintosh. Bookends Plus per Macintosh: un programma per gestire archivi bibliografici su microelaboratore.
Banche dati bibliografiche gestite su microelaboratore e accessibili via web: Reference Manager 11 Windows con Web Publisher. Ricerca a testo intero full-text searching : considerazioni generali e un caso specifico applicazione con Isys7. EndNote v. Gli organizzatori: programmi per l'acquisizione, gestione e pubblicazione dei contenuti: un esempio di rilievo, anche in ambito bibliografico: Web Idea Tree.
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Bibliografia e biblioteconomia; Testo anonimo attribuibile a Francesco Dell'Orso. Un programma per gestire dati bibliografici: Citation 9 della Oberon, e un'appendice sul test di programmi simili.
Include la scheda Testare i programmi BMS, p. Bibliography management software: with a detailed analysis of some packages. October , 3rd ed. The implementation of the Italian law banning asbestos listed multi-sectoral interventions, increasing awareness of asbestos risks and impacts, and advancing the industrial asbestos replacement process.
In the past three decades, preventive actions and remediation interventions have been increasing, including the involvement of the relevant stakeholders as described below. Integration of environmental and health policies at national, regional and local levels has so far been incomplete, as a result of a wide range of critical situations, as discussed later. From a global public health perspective, for the past decade, the Italian scientific cooperation has been instrumental in preventing asbestos-related diseases in countries still using asbestos.
The purpose of the present paper is to address the process that led to the enforcement of the asbestos ban in Italy and the subsequent actions including asbestos removal, environmental cleanup, waste management, epidemiological and health surveillance and communication.
Emphasis in the paper will be given to the need to implement the law banning asbestos use, which would otherwise be ineffective. Moreover, the lessons learnt in Italy in preventing asbestos-related diseases are also described to support the relevant stakeholders in countries still using asbestos to terminate its use, in the framework of international cooperation.
Asbestos in Italy and the Steps Leading to the Law Banning Asbestos In Italy, asbestos exposure affected people employed in a wide range of working environments, namely mining and marketing, asbestos cement production, shipyards and textile industry. The situation also determined a broad environmental asbestos exposure affecting surrounding communities [ 13 ].
Asbestos mining was an important industrial activity in Northern Italy for decades. Specifically, the Balangero quarry in the Piedmont Region, which was the largest European chrysotile quarry, opened in , and finally closed in [ 14 ].
The then emerging Eternit multinational company started producing asbestos cement in Italy in , establishing the large industrial plant in the city of Casale Monferrato Piedmont Region. Starting from the s, other industrial asbestos cement plants operated in the cities of Broni Lombardy Region and Bari Apulia Region for decades. Excesses in the incidence of mesothelioma are still recorded in these areas [ 15 ]. All the above locations are listed as Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites for environmental remediation [ 16 ].
A higher than expected incidence in mesotheliomas and mortality have also been observed in areas with the naval shipyards, and other industrial activities where asbestos fibers and asbestos-containing products were in large use, such as petrochemical and steel plants [ 17 , 18 ].
The annual burden of asbestos-related diseases due to occupational, environmental and domestic exposures in Italy currently includes new cases of asbestosis [ 19 ] and new cases of mesothelioma [ 20 ].
Estimates of the annual number of asbestos related neoplasms may be found in references [ 21 , 22 ]. According to Vigliani [ 23 ], the involvement of Italian researchers in investigating asbestos risks and health impact dates back to — with two studies describing the incidence of tuberculosis in asbestos industry workers and a lethal case of lung asbestosis complicated by tuberculosis.
In the following years, several Italian studies provided evidence of the health impact of asbestos exposures concerning traditional occupational settings such as asbestos cement factories [ 25 ], shipyards [ 26 , 27 ], and, unsuspected at that time, industrial sectors like railway carriages construction and repair [ 28 ], and non-asbestos textile industry where rags were packed in previously asbestos-containing jute bags [ 29 ].
Two research instruments were used to study the health impact of asbestos: i electron microscope determination of fibres in both environmental and biological matrices, and ii geographic studies of malignant pleural neoplasms: mapping mortality in the 20 Italian Regions, Provinces and Municipalities [ 30 ].
Regional Environmental Authorities, operating in the areas of the country with a massive presence of asbestos industrial activities, developed skills for asbestos sampling, and subsequent analytical determinations.
Likewise, Regional and Local Health Authorities operating in the same areas involved in the recognition of asbestos-related diseases, including diagnostic procedures and epidemiological investigations. This law was preceded by Decree n. A pilot initiative for banning asbestos in a local context was adopted by the Mayor of Casale Monferrato in in light of the dramatic situation of asbestos-related diseases in that town where, as previously mentioned, the main Italian Eternit plant was located.
The long-lasting commitment of the Italian scientific community in investigating the health impact of asbestos supported the national policy-makers in adopting the law banning asbestos. After twenty-five years since the national asbestos ban, the Italian scientific asbestos community still has an ongoing commitment supporting institutional and social players in implementing the law, especially with respect to the prevention of asbestos-related diseases and environmental remediation in the most contaminated areas see below.
Implementing Asbestos Policies after the Ban in Italy The adoption of the law banning asbestos was a great achievement, as discussed in the previous sections.
The law then required to be implemented and this process still in progress implied a set of actions that can be summarized as follows: 1 Public policies for asbestos substitutes. During the s, when the knowledge of the health risks caused by asbestos was spreading, some industries researched possible substitute materials to replace asbestos without compromising their technological functionality [ 32 ].
Since there was a risk that the new materials would have been mistakenly considered harmless just because they did not contain asbestos and were therefore used without any precaution, guidelines for their safe use were provided [ 33 ].
Asbestos substitutes were selected on the basis of the size of the fibres and their possible solubility in the respiratory system.
It is well known that asbestos fibres fracture longitudinally, thus producing fibres with an even smaller diameter while keeping the length unaltered. Most of these materials were and are still made of man-made mineral fibres MMMF such as glasswool, rockwool, slagwool and ceramic fibres [ 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 ].
The choice of a substitute material among MMMFs could be done taking the following into account: i filaments are preferable to wool, where technical requirements allow it, as their geometric diameter prevents them from being breathed in; ii glass materials are preferable because they are more soluble in biological liquids, even more so if the material to be used must necessarily be mineral wool.
Since the ban, the products that employed the largest quantities of the mineral asbestos-cement and friction materials are now manufactured with cellulose mixed up with cement, organic artificial fibres kevlar and inorganic MMMF mixed up with phenolic resins.
From a strictly economical point of view, substitutes are on average more expensive than asbestos. However, it should be said that if the manufacturing of asbestos products had always been performed with dust control systems, its cost would never have been competitive.
Asbestos cannot be replaced by just one single material. Every application generally requires a specific material. Most substitutes are not classified as carcinogenetic or queried as carcinogenetic except for ceramic fibres. The aims of ReNaM set by law are to identify cases, estimate mesothelioma incidence, assess asbestos exposure, particularly recognize unknown sources of contamination, and finally promote research projects.
Each COR works by applying the national standardized methods, described in the national Guidelines [ 45 ].
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The epidemiological findings are described and discussed in details in ReNaM national reports [ 19 ]. Furthermore, the median period of latency and the determinants of survival rates have been estimated and discussed [ 47 , 48 ]. The aforementioned figures are important to correctly interpret the epidemic curve of mesothelioma in Italy, which so far has not yet decreased.
Mesothelioma registration in Italy, besides providing a description of the occurrence of mesothelioma at a national level, has been crucial in interpreting localized clusters of mortality for malignant pleural cancer. This was the case in Biancavilla Sicily were mortality figures suggested the occurrence of an excess risk of pleural mesothelioma that was confirmed with respect to diagnostic procedures, risk estimates and causal agent, a previously unknown asbestiform fibre, subsequently named fluoro-edenite and classified by IARC as carcinogenic for humans [ 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 ].
The epidemiological systematic surveillance of asbestos-related diseases incidence, thus, is fundamental in preventing asbestos exposure, to support the efficiency of insurance and welfare systems and for producing epidemiological evidences. After the national ban, health surveillance of workers still exposed to asbestos, i. As regulated by Decree n. The examination includes lung function tests and, whenever required according to updated scientific knowledge, radiological or other diagnostic tests [ 54 ].
The need to monitor the health status of workers after the cessation of asbestos exposure has been also considered in the Italian legislation since a medical examination at the end of the working life has been mandatory since the mids.
In the course of the examination, the company doctor must inform workers about long-term possible adverse effects. Regional Governments are responsible for health facilities and different procedures were adopted by the various Italian regional administrations [ 57 ].
A great number of experiences of health care programs targeted to formerly exposed workers were conducted at regional or local levels, mainly involving the Prevention, Health and Safety at Work Services of the Local Health Units of the National Health System [ 57 , 58 ]. The main features of this Protocol can be summarized as follows. It should be based on scientific evidence, and its contents should comply with declared aims. Criteria for inclusion, diseases to be identified, medical facilities involved, procedures for communication, and the role of general practitioners GPs should be clearly stated.
Workers and employees involved should have the appropriate skills. Pneumologists, radiologists, pathologists, surgeons, cancer specialists oncologists and technical staff are essential. Liaison with specialized centers for the treatment of neoplasms, and in particular mesothelioma, will be very important.
Points a , b and c should be repeated at five-yearly intervals. Workers who test negative for asbestos-related diseases and whose first exposure to asbestos is remote should not have to undergo further check-ups, but subjects should be informed that if specific symptoms occur they should consult their GPs who will, if necessary, refer them back to the programme.
Subjects who test negative and whose first exposure was less remote should repeat the check-ups five years after joining the programme. Workers who test positive for asbestosis should be vaccinated yearly against influenza and pneumococcal disease, and be given five-yearly check-ups in accordance with the programme [ 63 ].
For further investigation i. Where the diagnosis and treatment of pleural mesothelioma are concerned, appropriate liaison will have to be arranged with facilities and personnel having the necessary experience in this field [ 64 ]. Smokers should be encouraged to give up smoking. All the instruments used must be consistent to requirements that, in the case of lung function tests LFT and chest X-ray CXR for occupational lung diseases, already exist [ 62 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 ].
Periodic reports on the programme should be forwarded to leading figures in the Local Health Units. The scientific community must be kept informed by means of publications.
Asbestos Ban in Italy: A Major Milestone, Not the Final Cut
At intervals to be defined, the contents and calendar of the programme should be reviewed in the light of the characteristics of the participants and of scientific knowledge.
Even if the law of asbestos ban did not specifically address the notion of fostering scientific research on asbestos, it indirectly favored the development of research that was supported by the National Research Council, the Ministry of Health and other authorities. The law established the National Conference of environmental and health safety of industrial technological processes, materials and products, was aimed at a wide range of participants, namely, experts, trade unions, companies, environmentalist and consumer associations, universities and research institutes.
The First National Conference on asbestos was held in Rome in , and provided the setting for presenting and discussing research findings, including epidemiological studies that threw light on previously insufficiently investigated items.
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Ecco come avere il tema scuro in YouTube per iOS. Ecco il jailbreak da iOS AirPods non si connettono ad iOS Ecco come risolvere. Schatzii Bullet 2.Pisanelli, "AIDA informazioni", 14 n. In the late s, the coming together of these multiple experiences led to the development of a system to identify and prevent health hazards [ ]. After the national ban, health surveillance of workers still exposed to asbestos, i.
Mesothelioma registration in Italy, besides providing a description of the occurrence of mesothelioma at a national level, has been crucial in interpreting localized clusters of mortality for malignant pleural cancer. Creation and implementation of national health and epidemiological systems of asbestos disease.
The latter enables us to estimate a level of possible exposure in semi-quantitative terms.