Thank you for picking up this Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Manual. In this manual, you will find an explanation to the 16 different personality archetypes. a guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. by Isabel Briggs Myers, Mary H. McCaulley, Naomi L. Quenk, Allen L. Hammer. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator manual. ESFJ raukhamatfrogal.cf-Briggs Type Indicator Manual Table of Contents Table of Figures .

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of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust in the United States and other countries. MBTI® Manual, “Use of Type in Organizations,” “Uses of. Type in Multicultural. View MBTI raukhamatfrogal.cf from BUSINESS at Unicom College of Business Studies, Rustam, Mardam. MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR MANUAL. Before we begin discussing the Myers-Briggs Type Indicators (MBTI), it is worth Myers, I., McCaulley, M.H., Quenk, N.L. Hammer, A.L., , 'MBTI Manual. .. raukhamatfrogal.cf [Accessed]

Intuition refers to how people process data. It is in their best mind to maintain harmony among a group. They tend to analyze the pros and cons of a situation and notice inconsistencies. They easily see the big picture rather than the details Myers They dislike structure and prefer to adapt to new situations rather than plan for it. Judging people seek closure. They find the outcome more rewarding than the process of creating something. The percentage distribution is based on research by the OPP.

While working on a project. They like order prefer outlined schedules to working extemporaneously. Judging J or Perceiving P Judging refers to how people outwardly display themselves when making decisions. They tend to be open to new options and experiences. An overview of the 16 different personality types and adjectives corresponding to the specific type helps differentiation. Judging people have a tendency to be organized and prompt. Perceiving people prefer flexibility and live their life with spontaneity.

They are more focused on linking the past to the present. They place importance on closure. They are quick to come up with a plan and finish it off. This is because they have a set value system.

Offer constructive criticism. They use logic and traditional principles to guide them through life. They love spending time with family and friends. This allows them to recognize concrete needs and remember data in detail. Because of this. Do be organized. ESTJs are impatient with inefficiency. They are self-confident and assertive. Their primary function is Extraverted Thinking while their auxiliary function is Introverted Sensing. ESTJ weaknesses include their general inability to adapt to new environments.

They learn best in situations where objectives are established as well as details so they can plan ahead. Community is crucial to the ESTJ. They may be perceived as critical and harsh. ESFJs are guardians of the emotions of others. Their auxiliary function is Introverted Sensing. They are always looking to protect others feelings above all other things.

ESFJs are excellent leaders. Be direct and concise with orders. They are driven and work hard in order to accomplish the task at hand. In decision making they always consider how their choice will impact all those involved. Their respect for protocol and tradition means that they strictly follow seniority and expect others to do the same.

Recall that the ESFJ will always take the feelings of others into account. The primary function is Extraverted Feeling which makes them extremely capable of expressing their emotions.

ESFJ weaknesses include reacting too quickly and emotionally in a situation that would be better dealt with in a pragmatic fashion. ESFJs prefer to be followers. They tend to view the world as either right or wrong and have little tolerance for anything inbetween.

The auxiliary function is Extraverted Thinking. They generally keep to themselves until approached. They generally know right from wrong in their areas of interest and responsibility which makes them devoted and dutiful individuals. Talk through a problem with the ISTJ.

Preparation and Agenda

ISTJs would rather see consistency in people. They will also put themselves at risk to carry out any task assigned to them. They work with facts and take a methodical approach towards solving problems. Show the same devotion as ISTJs do. They can also work in small groups or one-on-one situations because of their patience and ability to deal with others. The primary function is Introverted Sensing. They will tailor their needs to fit with those of others.

ISFJs prefer not to delegate work and hate to be treated as doormats. ISFJs have few close friends. Provide Meaningful Feedback. The ISFJ works methodically.

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Because they work so hard due to their dutiful nature. Follow procedure as ISFJs are traditionalists. Their auxiliary function is Extraverted Feeling. Show affirmation as ISFJs generally do not give themselves enough credit. ISFJs hate conflict. Because the ESTPs live in the present. Allow this type to be the initial motivator of a project. The ESTP often has enthusiasm for getting projects started.

Do not expect the ESTP to follow a set plan: They are direct. They auxiliary function is Introverted Thinking in which they are able to categorize data and apply it.

Let the ESTP to work with their own methods rather than stifle their creativity. They view rules as guidelines and will follow them so long as it is convenient. This leads on to their tendency to take risks without thought. They enjoy conversation and have a well-developed sense for the attitudes of others. ESTPs have an abundance of enthusiasm and can easily motivate those around them to work.

The primary function of an ESTP is Extraverted Sensing in which they take in the world through their senses and view it in a concrete fashion. ESTP weaknesses include not being readily able to grasp what other people are feeling let alone expressing their own. They place limited importance in concept and theory and prefer to focus on what needs to be done. They can be insensitive of others feelings.

ESFPs tend to be too materialistic. They are extremely outgoing: They may also not pay attention enough to their own needs because they prefer to live in the present and neglect the consequences of their actions. Do provide the ESFP with new things to work on because they will get bored easily. They are practical. They are able to relate to others and seek to identify with those who share similar interests. Their auxiliary function is Introverted Feeling.

They live in the here-and-now. Because they are always excited by new things. Give the ESFP some room to do their own thing. Do not start conflict as ESFPs will hold grudges against you. They may have the impression that they must download the best items.

They are very accepting of everyone. They are extremely observant of others. ESFPs adore being in the spotlight. They are great at working with people. If someone violates the principles that the ISTP holds in high regard. They enjoy deconstructing and reconstructing a system to better learn how it works. The ISTP enjoys working with their hands while evaluating a complex system. They are doers. ISTPs prefer hands-on projects.

An ISTP is always looking for ways to be involved in their work and thrive in all-or-nothing situations.

ISTPs are extremely spontaneous. In turn. The ISTP will disregard rules set for them and work best without physical or mental constraints. Their primary function is Introverted Thinking which allows them to analyze data and notice inconsistencies.

ISTPs are spontaneous and prefer being able to react to the current situation than follow a plan. While they have little respect for rules imposed upon them. They work well in crises because they are quick to make decisions and to put their thoughts into action. ISTPs strictly follow their own set of internal rules. They strive to connect with others who share similar ideals.

In contrast. Their primary function is Introverted Feeling which allows them to know what they value and make judgments based on these values. Assign projects that foster creativity without deadlines.

Approach the ISFP by being direct and honest. They prefer flexibility and do not fare will with schedules. They live in a world full of sensation possibilities and have a strong value system in which they constantly strive to meet in their own lives. Logic is secondary to the ISFP for they are uncomfortable dealing with objective systems. They learn best in a hands-on approach and may be bored with traditional methods which emphasize abstract thinking.

They have an extreme dislike of conflict and criticism because they seek harmony and are generally irritated when their personal space has been invaded. Weaknesses of the ISFP include their tendency to be cynical which does not translate well onto others.

ISFPs will generally be inclined to choose careers which allow freedom for creativity and displaying their personal goals. Their primary function is Extraverted Thinking which allows them to be organized as well as aptly categorize things.

ENTJs can be stubborn if new ideas do not coincide with their own. They find themselves in charge because they have an inclination to give structure to a project.

Because they are incredibly organized. Rather than establishing plans. Do be direct with the ENTJ. ENTJs are willing to invest every resource that they believe is efficient into achieving something. ENTJs love hearing about new concepts.

Do not make up excuses.

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They have the keen ability to see the consequences before acting on a plan. ENTJs are quick decision makers and may have brilliant ideas. Because of their natural leadership ability.

They have a tendency to be confrontational and may come across as aggressive. They have no problem with conflict and may appear argumentative.

a guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Because of their natural ability to devise contingency plans. As Extroverts and Thinkers. They dislike errors and can be demanding. Do engage the ENTJ in lively. ENTJs will not tolerate it. The ENTP is an individual who constantly seeks to understand the world around them. Often times they will ignore others unless they have their immediate attention.

In their relationships with others. ENTPs can tend to be inconsiderate of those they consider to be inferior. ENTPs seek to challenge the status quo and they can be demanding. Their auxiliary function is Introverted Thinking. ENTPs are concerned mostly with the future and find little interest in the details of the present. They tend to like to try new ideas and once proven move on to their next challenge rather than follow through on their current project.

In personal relationships they are fiercely loyal and will go to any lengths for those they care for. Be direct with the ENTP. They are always looking for new ways of doing things and often ignore rules and conventions. They are constantly looking to create change and enjoy dynamic situations. They often argue for sake of learning from the argument. They are problem solvers and revel in the challenge of new tasks.

Ask for explanations on concepts—they will be happy to explain ideas. Their primary function is Extraverted Intuition which allows them to see the different possibilities of a scenario or when making decisions. They will change positions on a subject in order to learn as much as possible. Do offer constructive feedback. INTJs love to improve ideas. INTJs can have trouble communicating in simple terms and can grow impatient for others whom cannot catch onto their idea.

INTJs dislike route memorization and learn best when they are able to develop their own system for learning in which they become absorbed into the subject. They enjoy introspecting and coming to new understandings with the world.

They can also be unwilling to adapt to new environments. They may be so reserved to the extent at which they will not share their idea before it is fully formed. They have high standards for themselves and a lesser extent for others. Their primary function is Introverted Intuition in which they process data internally through their intuition.

INTJs are idea generators and are willing to take every measure to ensure their ideas become reality. Do ask for clarification of ideas. Their auxiliary function is Extraverted Thinking in which they approach situations with empirical logic. Do not express an opinion unless you are ready to back it up with sound evidence.

They are deeply motivated by inspiration. They may be singleminded and dismiss all other viewpoints. According to BSM Consulting. They are known as system-builders and seek to apply theoretical models. Do not engage the INTJ in small talk and repetition of statements.

INTJs are also pragmatists and recognize their limits. They are problem solvers. The INTP is an individual who is constantly seeking knowledge and understanding. They are often disengaged from the world around them and prefer to observe and understand rather than participate and work.

If something has not moved and is of little use it will often disappear in the mind of the INTP James. For this reason they expect others to be beyond error. When under stress.

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INTPs act like mirrors to those they are around: They are constantly analyzing the world around them and are more concerned with temporal change than all other things. They approach situations objectively and seek to understand. Plans and schedules do not suit an INTP: Do not insult an INTP or dismiss their values: INTPs are independent and believe others should be as well.

They have little concern for detail and prefer to look at a bigger picture. They often look to learn proficiency in an area. This makes them abstract thinkers who are more interested in theoretical concepts and ideas than what is immediate.

Be honest with an INTP. The ENFJ is more reserved than other extraverted types. Offer constructive criticism because ESFJs are extremely sensitive to criticism. So, TJ types tend to appear to the world as logical and FJ types as empathetic. According to Myers, [1] judging types like to "have matters settled". Those types who prefer perception show the world their preferred perceiving function sensing or intuition.

So, SP types tend to appear to the world as concrete and NP types as abstract. According to Myers, [1] perceptive types prefer to "keep decisions open".


For extraverts, the J or P indicates their dominant function; for introverts, the J or P indicates their auxiliary function. Introverts tend to show their dominant function outwardly only in matters "important to their inner worlds". The ENTJ type introverts the auxiliary perceiving function introverted intuition. The tertiary function is sensing and the inferior function is introverted feeling.

Because the INTJ type is introverted, however, the J instead indicates that the auxiliary function is the preferred judging function extraverted thinking. The INTJ type introverts the dominant perceiving function introverted intuition.

The tertiary function is feeling and the inferior function is extraverted sensing. The choices are a mixture of word pairs and short statements. Choices are not literal opposites, but chosen to reflect opposite preferences on the same dichotomy. Participants may skip questions if they feel they are unable to choose. Using psychometric techniques, such as item response theory , the MBTI will then be scored and will attempt to identify the preference, and clarity of preference, in each dichotomy.

After taking the MBTI, participants are usually asked to complete a "Best Fit" exercise see below and then given a readout of their Reported Type, which will usually include a bar graph and number Preference Clarity Index to show how clear they were about each preference when they completed the questionnaire.

During the early development of the MBTI, thousands of items were used. Most were eventually discarded because they did not have high "midpoint discrimination", meaning the results of that one item did not, on average, move an individual score away from the midpoint. Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows the MBTI to have fewer items on it, but still provide as much statistical information as other instruments with many more items with lower midpoint discrimination.

Additional formats[ edit ] Isabel Myers had noted that people of any given type shared differences, as well as similarities. At the time of her death, she was developing a more in-depth method of measuring how people express and experience their individual type pattern. In , an advanced scoring system was developed for the MBTI.

From this was developed the Type Differentiation Indicator Saunders, which is a scoring system for the longer MBTI, Form J, [26] which includes the items written by Myers that had survived her previous item analyses.

It yields 20 subscales five under each of the four dichotomous preference scales , plus seven additional subscales for a new "Comfort-Discomfort" factor which purportedly corresponds to the missing factor of neuroticism.

This factor's scales indicate a sense of overall comfort and confidence versus discomfort and anxiety. There are also scales for type-scale consistency and comfort-scale consistency.

Reliability of 23 of the 27 TDI subscales is greater than 0. In , a scoring system was developed for only the 20 subscales for the original four dichotomies. Step III was advertised as addressing type development and the use of perception and judgment by respondents.

It allows the clarity of a preference to be ascertained Bill clearly prefers introversion , but not the strength of preference Jane strongly prefers extraversion or degree of aptitude Harry is good at thinking.

In this sense, it differs from trait-based tools such as 16PF. Type preferences are polar opposites: a precept of MBTI is that people fundamentally prefer one thing over the other, not a bit of both.

Own best judge People are considered the best judge of their own type. A Best Fit Process is usually used to allow respondents to develop their understanding of the four dichotomies, to form their own hypothesis as to their overall Type, and to compare this against the Reported Type.

Using the clarity of each preference, any potential for bias in the report, and often, a comparison of two or more whole Types may then help respondents determine their own Best Fit. No right or wrong No preference or total type is considered better or worse than another. They are all ' Gifts Differing ', as emphasized by the title of Isabel Briggs Myers' book on this subject. It should always be taken voluntarily.

Not for selection The results of the assessment should not be used to "label, evaluate, or limit the respondent in any way" emphasis original. Many professions contain highly competent individuals of different types with complementary preferences. Importance of proper feedback People should always be given detailed feedback from a trained administrator and an opportunity to undertake a Best Fit exercise to check against their Reported Type.

This feedback can be given in person, by telephone or electronically. This is one of the most important aspects to consider for ensuring type-match accuracy. Lacking this component, many users end up mistyping, by at least one character. This is especially true of assessments offered for free online by third party providers.Their primary function is Extraverted Feeling.

They are all ' Gifts Differing ', as emphasized by the title of Isabel Briggs Myers' book on this subject. He also observed that people took in information Perceiving or organized the information and came up with a conclusion Judging.

Judging people have a tendency to be organized and prompt. Myers and Briggs held that types with a preference for judging show the world their preferred judging function thinking or feeling.

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