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B, On the human genome the map is composed of syntenic segments. See Supplementary Information for the synteny map between Tetraodon and mouse. The genome was broken into smaller pieces; approximately , base pairs in length. These pieces were then ligated into a type of vector known as "bacterial artificial chromosomes", or BACs, which are derived from bacterial chromosomes which have been genetically engineered.

The vectors containing the genes can be inserted into bacteria where they are copied by the bacterial DNA replication machinery.

Each of these pieces was then sequenced separately as a small "shotgun" project and then assembled. The larger, , base pairs go together to create chromosomes. This is known as the "hierarchical shotgun" approach, because the genome is first broken into relatively large chunks, which are then mapped to chromosomes before being selected for sequencing. Funding came from the US government through the National Institutes of Health in the United States, and a UK charity organization, the Wellcome Trust, as well as numerous other groups from around the world.

One of the main concerns of most individuals was the fear that both employers and health insurance companies would refuse to hire individuals or refuse to provide insurance to people because of a health concern indicated by someone's genes. In the United States passed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIPAA which protects against the unauthorized and non-consensual release of individually identifiable health information to any entity not actively engaged in the provision of healthcare services to a patient.

Along with identifying all of the approximately 20,, genes in the human genome, the Human Genome Project also sought to address the ethical, legal, and social issues that were created by the onset of the project. Five percent of the annual budget was allocated to address the ELSI arising from the project. Whilst the project may offer significant benefits to medicine and scientific research, some authors have emphasized the need to address the potential social consequences of mapping the human genome.

The other regions, called "heterochromatic" are found in centromeres and telomeres, and were not sequenced under the project. The Human Genome Project was declared complete in April An initial rough draft of the human genome was available in June and by February a working draft had been completed and published followed by the final sequencing mapping of the human genome on April 14, Further analyses and papers on the HGP continue to occur.

However, some people see ethical issues, and wonder if scientists are playing God with our genomes. Could genetic information be misused; for example, through genetic discrimination by employers or insurance companies?

Most people agree that gene testing can be used ethically to prevent serious diseases such as cancer, or during pregnancy to avoid the birth of someone with a severe handicap, but should we allow gene testing to choose a child who will be able to be better at sports, or more intelligent?

CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Biology 2018-2019 Board Exam

What about sex selection, already a problem in some countries? And will it become possible to use genetic information to change genes in children or adults for the better?

Do we really want to know if we run the risk of developing a particular disease that may or may not be treatable? What are the privacy issues regarding genome screening on a population scale?

Class 12 Biology CBSE Board Syllabus

Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. To make a DNA molecule you need: A Human DNA which is about 2m long gets packed so well that it fits into cell nucleus, then think of the difficulty in viewing a DNA Research groups in many countries, including Australia, began to sequence different genes, providing the beginnings of a total human gene map.

In , the Human Genome Organization HUGO was found by leading scientists to coordinate the massive International effort involved in collecting sequence data to unravel the secrets of our genes. Beginning in , a new technology known as RNAseq was The first printout of the human genome to be presented as a series of books, displayed at the Wellcome Collection, London Introduced that allowed scientists to directly sequence the messenger RNA in cells.

See Supplementary Information for the synteny map between Tetraodon and mouse The genome was broken into smaller pieces; approximately , base pairs in length. A researcher reviews a DNA sequence. Samiha Antara. Arjun Verma. Shashank Ov. Alishka Garg.

Subhag Singh. Mudashir Anam. Parvez hassan. Ayashkant Mishra. Rahul Choudhary. Adarsh Prasad. CBSE class 12 physics investigatory project on logic gates. Rohan Patel. Siddhartha Gautama. Popular in Molecular Biology.

Daniel Romero. Supporting Information S1 Table. Content knowledge results: Elementary school students, — Italics indicate a non-desired change. Non-significant changes are indicated by "n.

PDF S2 Table. Content knowledge results: Middle school students, — Results from the content knowledge portion of the — 7th grade student assessments. PDF S3 Table. Content knowledge results: High school students, — Results from the content knowledge portion of the — high school student assessments.

PDF S4 Table. Attitude results: Elementary school students, — Net Likert Point Change is the difference between the sum of all Likert scale values for the given question on pre- and post-tests.

PDF S5 Table.

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Attitude results: Middle school students, — Animal products have also been developed, although as of July none are currently on the market. The foreign gene is constructed using recombinant DNA methodology. In addition to the gene itself, the DNA usually includes other sequences to enable it to be incorporated into the DNA of the host and to be expressed correctly by the cells of the host. Transgenic animals are used as experimental models to perform phenotypic and for testing in biomedical research.

Genetically Modified Genetically Engineered animals are becoming more vital to the discovery and development of cures and treatments for many serious diseases. By altering the DNA or transferring DNA to an animal, we can develop certain proteins that may be used in medical treatment. Stable expressions of human proteins have been developed in many animals, including sheep, pigs, and rats. Some examples are: Human-alphaantitrypsin,[29] which has been developed in sheep and is used in treating humans with this deficency and transgenic pigs with human-histo- compatibility have been studied in the hopes that the organs will be suitable for transplant with less chances of rejection.

Transgenic livestock have been used as bioreactors since the s. Many medicines, including insulin and many immunizations are developed in transgenic animals. This field is growing rapidly and new pharming uses are being discovered and developed.

The extent that trangenic animals will be useful in the medical field as well as other fields is very promising based on results thus far. The Glow Fish, a fluorescent red zebra fish sold as a novel pet, has become the first transgenic animal sold to U. In , Dr.

A state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid

Zhiyuan Gong and his colleagues at the National University of Singapore were working with a gene called green fluorescent protein GFP , originally extracted from a jellyfish, that naturally produced bright green fluorescence. They inserted the gene into a zebra fish embryo, allowing it to integrate into the zebrafish's genome, which caused the fish to be brightly fluorescent under both natural white light and ultraviolet light.

The development of the constantly fluorescing fish was the first step in this process. Shortly thereafter, his team developed a line of red fluorescent zebra fish by adding a gene from a sea coral, and orange-yellow fluorescent zebra fish, by adding a variant of the jellyfish gene. Later, a team of researchers at the National University of Taiwan, headed by Professor Huai-Jen Tsai succeeded in creating a medaka rice fish with a fluorescent green color, which like the zebrafish is a model organism used in biology.

Transgenic Rat Fruit flies In biological research, transgenic fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are model organisms used to study the effects of genetic changes on development. Mosquitoes In , scientists created "malaria-resistant mosquitoes" in the laboratory. The World Health Organization estimated that Malaria killed almost one million people in Genetically modified male mosquitoes containing a lethal gene have been developed in order to combat the spread of Dengue fever.

Around 50 - million people are affected by Dengue fever every year and 40, people die from it. Mammals Genetically modified mammals are an important category of genetically modified organisms. Transgenic mice are often used to study cellular and tissue-specific responses to disease. In , scientists at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada created the genetically engineered Enviropig.

The Enviropig excretes from 30 to In , scientists in Japan announced that they had successfully transferred a gene into a primate species marmosets and produced a stable line of breeding transgenic primates for the first time. Their first research target for these marmosets was Parkinson's disease, but they were also considering Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease.

In , scientists in China released news that they have introduced human genes into dairy cows to produce milk with the same properties as human breast milk. Aside from milk production, the researchers claim these transgenic cows to be identical to regular cows.


An important technical breakthrough was the development of procedures for generation of stably transgenic hydras and sea anemones by embryo microinjection. It has got numerous applications in medicine ranging from vaccines to transgenic organ transplants. Many companies have been searching for an artificial blood because of the annual worldwide shortage of about million units of blood and the military's need for blood replacements that can be stored in field conditions without refrigeration.

An artificial blood also would virtually eliminate the risk of contracting AIDS, hepatitis and other viral diseases through transfusions. Development of emulsion technologies resulted in the production of compounds which utilized smaller chain perfluorocarbon molecules to more effectively emulsify the perfluorocarbons, allowing higher concentrations of active agent in the emulsion and thus higher oxygen carrying capabilities.

Artificial Haemoglobin b Cloned Pigs Modified for Use in Human Transplants Two competing teams have cloned pigs that have been genetically modified to produce organs more suitable for transplantation into humans. Pig organs are well suited for transplantation; they are approximately the same size as human organs and have similar plumbing, which makes reconnecting blood vessels much easier.

Also, the size of pig litters tends to be large and pigs reproduce quickly, raising the prospect of a large supply of "spare" organs. A problem with using pig organs, however, is that they are coated with sugar molecules that trigger acute rejection in people.Excessive drinking can lead to hangovers.

The Accountancy project for class 12 has been taken from SlideShare. Comment upon their morphological adaptations. Chapter Plant - Growth and Development Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.

Some of the recommended labs may be too expensive or too time consuming for your class. Biology Projects on the different colours of the plant leaves in different species of plants 4.

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